Fascism is a right-wing nationalist ideology whereby the state is run with no form of democracy. Fascism involves an autocratic political class focused on a centralized nationalistic government, emphasizing an autocratic leader who has power overall and is the sole decision-maker. In a fascist government, any objections or revolt is dealt with severe consequences.
Fascism started in Europe in the 1900s and was practiced mainly by Mussolini’s in Italy and Nazi Germany. These autocratic leaders believed that a totalitarian form of government would promote patriotism and nationalism. Fascism was believed to have a positive impact on the economic growth and strength of the country. Fascism was primarily influenced by the desire of the government leaders to address issues such as social class equality, mass unemployment, weak political systems, poor living standards of citizens, and economic inflation. This mode of government was the sole decision-maker on matters of wages, pricing, production, and capital funding. Despite having positive effects on the country’s economy, fascism had many adverse effects on the countries that exercised this form of governance.
Pros of Fascism
1. Class Equality: Fascism championed the abolishment of socio-economic classes whereby rich people of the country were required to share with the poorest to achieve equality and fair distribution of resources. The mode of governance was authoritarian, and the government-controlled the higher classes and companies. Moreover, the government ensures self-sufficiency is achieved by controlling wages and prices; hence, all citizens can provide basic needs and have a comfortable life.
2. Nationalism: The fascist government emphasizes cultural improvement to promote the preservation of culture. This type of government prioritizes investing much of the available country’s resources on national culture and national defenses. The government ensures that the military is well equipped with enough human resources, armed vehicles, and superior weapons to fight any enemies.
3. Enhanced Security: This form of leadership allocates many resources to create a robust, aggressive, and exceptionally disciplined military to enhance its security and protect the state’s rights. The military is ruled with values based on strength, direct action, and violence.
4. Patriotism: Fascism enables citizens to show their inner patriotism by emphasizing a vital state. This mode of governance instills in its citizens’ sense of national pride. Moreover, the fear of punishment, violence, and brutality makes people defend their country.
5. Economic Growth: Fascist governments focus more on the country’s well-being as a whole, and they have a free hand to improve the economy. The leadership ensures total control of production, foreign trade, commerce, price, and wages to help avert economic inflation. The government fuels the economy through the improvement of infrastructure and expansion of industrial production.
6. War on Pollution: The fascist government emphasizes cultural preservation. Environmental pollution can have adverse effects on culture and the environment; hence, through its core values, the leadership will deploy all its resources to tackle pollution as it puts culture preservation as a priority.
7. Reduction of Unemployment: By abolishing social classes and focusing on equality and economic growth, this mode of governance can ensure citizens quickly get jobs to protect their livelihoods and families and that the government can dictate wages to ensure the quality of life.
8. Reduction of Crime: The fascist government acknowledges excessive force, torture, and imprisonment to punish people who commit criminal offenses and believes this will reduce crime. Excessive force and heavy punishment are also applied to secure the obedience of the laws.
9. Quick Decision Making: Since fascism emphasizes the one-party system and absolute power central to one person, no bureaucracy is exercised in decision-making. A leader can enact laws much more quickly and efficiently since they avert lengthy procedures, processes, and delays experienced by other governance systems.
10. Allowance of Private Enterprises: This mode of government plays a significant role in encouraging citizens to form private enterprises, which creates employment and helps people earn profits, and gives rise to competition, enhancing the economy’s stabilization and massive prosperity significance in averting inflation.
Cons of Fascism
1. Lack of freedom of speech: This type of leadership does not condom any form of dissent, criticism, or revolt of the government, and people who try to exercise such acts are subjected to brutality, imprisonment, or death sentence. People are not allowed to say what they want to say, and censuring of the press is encouraged to promote government ideas into people’s minds.
2. Bad Economic Spending: The government may drain lots of funds on resources solely focused on improving the country’s defenses. Funds are directed to militarization instead of promoting social welfare.
3. Lack of Incentives for industries: Since the government controls the industries, many investors feel discouraged to put up large industries and businesses which the leadership may take over at any particular time. Investors have considerable significance in contributing to the development and growth of a country’s economy. Businesses are forced to abide by stringent rules and measures put in place by the government.
4. Suppression of Liberties: The fascist government has no respect and total disregard for individual rights by suppressing oppositions and dissenting policies by the government.
5. Autocratic Leader: The emphasis of power is absolute and central to one person can translate to no governing ethics or values if this person starts misuse or abuse of power.
6. Disregard of International Law: Fascism rules and ideologies do not conform to standards set by international law. The country does not cooperate with the international community, and neither do they heed sanctions.
7. Violation of Human Rights: This mode of government has total disregard for human rights, freedom of movement, and expression due to its monolithic and autocratic ideologies that do not respect any form of liberties. Through their strong armies, fascist governments tend to engage in wars that result in significant loss of life.
8. Wide Gap between the Rich and Poor: Rich people can corrupt or pay the government to maintain their status quo and wealth, thus challenging class equality between the rich and the poor.
9. Widespread cronyism and corruption: Due to conferring absolute power to one person, a leader may use his position to reward his families and friends with powerful positions and lucrative deals. Allies can easily abuse power and engage in corrupt activities that may damage may the economy.
10. Violence inherent: The fascist government has no rule of law, the only rule of personality, force, and private interest, and this may lead to oppression of opposition through brutal methods such as assassination, violence, and physical harm.