The growing human population and advancements in technology are what led to urbanization in the first place. Generally, urbanization is the concentration of populations of people and their activities in various cities. People move from rural areas to urban areas in search of a better life. Urban areas tend to have more opportunities in terms of jobs than rural.
There are very many factors that contribute to urbanization. These can be better sanitation or clean water, quality education, better health care and access to entertainment.
1. Convenience. This is the main reason why the masses move to urban areas. They have access to education, healthcare and other social services which may not be easily available in the villages. There is even advanced communication and transportation.
2. Social and cultural integration. The cities are concentrated with people from all walks of life. In this case, people from different cultures and social statuses are brought together.
3. Boosts the economy. Most of the businesses and industries are located in urban areas. When people from the countryside are exposed to new opportunities, they have the capability to increase their income. For instance, they can bring their businesses to cities where there are more customers.
4. Better educational facilities. The best education facilities can be found in urban areas. Education is quite important for the development of a country. The schools, colleges, and universities provide a wide choice of careers for the leaners.
5. Efficiency. The cities are considered more efficient than in rural areas. Amenities such as fresh water and electricity are readily available. There is even better accommodation through flats.
6. Resources are concentrated in urban areas. Since time immemorial, human settlements were established close to natural resources. This means that most of these resources are located in and around the urban areas.
7. Promotes the development of the tourism industries. Tourists from every corner of the globe prefer to visit the major cities of countries. This is because many of the attraction sites are supported by top-notch infrastructure.
8. Improved trade and commerce. Urbanization boosts the business sector of a country through a more diverse economy and more job opportunities. The fact that there is a wide network of goods and services in the city, many commercial institutions have developed in the cities.
9. Improved sanitation services. Water and waste recycling plants are mainly found in urban areas. There is also potable water and better sanitation.
10. Improvements in technology. Urbanization is the major reason why technology has been improving at a faster rate. The increased population calls for faster communication and dissemination of goods or services.
1. Contributes to housing issues. The increased flow of rural populations into the cities has caused a rise in housing scarcity. For starters, there is limited space for housing.
2. A drastic decrease in rural populations. Many people move from rural areas and opt to live in the urbanized regions. This leads to a decrease in the population of people living in the villages. This can result in a shortage of needed workforce for agricultural produce.
3. Overpopulation in urban areas. Every year, thousands of people flock the cities in search of employment and quality life. This leads to congestion in the cities. Similarly, there will be increased pressure on sanitation and other water facilities.
4. Increased crime rates. Crowding in urban areas is bound to result in higher crime rates. There are so many people living in a small area and not all of them will get access to better employment.
5. There is less arable land. The growing population means there is more demand for land to build houses and industries. In this case, there is usually very little land left for agriculture.
6. A negative impact on the environment. Pollution is greater in the cities. Exhaust fumes from vehicles and emissions of harmful gases or smoke from the factories are among the major causes of pollution.
7. Poor living conditions. Overcrowded areas in the cities normally result in the development of slums. Ultimately, there will be poor sanitation and an outbreak of diseases.
8. Unemployment. The truth is many people go to the urban areas to look for employment. However, the number of people looking for jobs is more than the jobs available. The outcome is definitely unemployment.
9. Frequent flooding. Most cities have extensive areas covered with concrete or asphalt. For this reason, the rainwater may not properly infiltrate the soils. Heavy rains can easily result in flooding compromising normal activities.
10. The environment is hot and humid. There is very little vegetation around and most of the areas are paved. Increased residences and industries cause a rise in temperatures.